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W3C HTML Validator on OS X

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Installing the W3C HTML Validator on Mac OS X

Building a website is a complicated process, and testing your finished product on every possible browser can be even more daunting. However, because modern browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, and Internet Explorer 6 are compliant with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) standards, testing your pages with the W3C Validation Tool is a great way to ensure that your pages work with modern browsers. The W3C Validator provides a line-by-line level of feedback, such as error information with references to the standards, on any URL you submit or HTML file you upload.

But what if your pages are accessible only within your firewall? Or what if your organization is reluctant to have their pages submitted to any external site for validation—even if it’s fully automated? Read the rest of this entry »

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Written by montanaflynn

January 30, 2008 at 6:06 pm

Installing MySQL on on Mac OS X

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MySQL on Mac OS X

MySQL has become one of the most popular databases for Web applications. The database is well suited for common Web-related tasks like content management, and for implementing Web features like discussion boards and guestbooks. For a time, some developers avoided MySQL for commercial applications because it did not implement certain features, such as transactions. But this is no longer the case, and MySQL is a great choice for just about any Web-based application. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by montanaflynn

January 30, 2008 at 6:04 pm

Setting up an OS X development server

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Okay, so this was very much a case of fumbling around in the dark until stuff worked, lot’s of Googling and breaking stuff. The end result is a dev server on OS X that is running Textpattern with clean URLs and a copy of WordPress for good measure. These notes are primarily so I don’t forget how I did it, if they are useful to someone else, great! Be warned, though, I have no idea how secure this set up is and what flaws it has, so you follow these instructions at your own risk! Also, I am using OS 10.3.9 so I don’t know if this would work on Tiger. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by montanaflynn

January 29, 2008 at 9:34 pm

Mac OSX Server FTP Server Administration

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FTP Only Accounts Under Mac OS X

The following howto describes how to set up ftp only accounts using Apple Mac’s built in ftp server (lukemftpd).

This outline requires you to use the terminal, NetInfo Manager and have admin privileges on the machine in question.

Warning: You can muck things up quite seriously using NetInfo Manager. At the very least make sure you have a recent, full back-up of the machine you’re planning to setup before going any further.

To create ftp only accounts we need to:

  1. Create an ftp login shell
  2. Restrict our prospective ftp user to their folder
  3. Create the user account
  4. Create a folder for the new user
  5. Give the user a password

Create An FTP Login Shell

To create an ftp login shell we need to copy or link /sbin/nologin to /sbin/ftplogin. We’ll create a symbolic link from /sbin/nologin to /sbin/ftplogin. To do this:

  1. Fire up Terminal
  2. Type “sudo ln -s /sbin/nologin /sbin/ftplogin” (without the quotes)
  3. Hit return
  4. Type in your admin user’s password when prompted

Now we need to add the new “shell” to the list of shells available to the system. To do this we need to add “/sbin/ftplogin” to the list of shells given in the file found at /etc/shells. In Terminal:

  1. Type “sudo pico /etc/shells”. This’ll open up the file “shells” in a simple text editor in Terminal
  2. Hit return
  3. Type in your admin user’s password if prompted
  4. Add the string “/sbin/ftplogin” (without the quotes) on a new line at the end of the list of shells available. This’ll give you a final list similar to:

    /bin/bash
    /bin/csh
    /bin/sh
    /bin/tcsh
    /bin/zsh
    /sbin/ftplogin

  5. Type ctl + “o”. That’s the letter “o” while holding down the control key
  6. Hit return
  7. Type ctl + “x” to eXit Pico

Restrict User To Their Folder

We’re setting this up now so that as soon as the user we’re creating gains access to our machine, they’re restricted to their log-in or root folder. All we have to do is create the file /etc/ftpchroot if it doesn’t exist and then add the prospective user’s username to the file.

  1. In Terminal, type “cd /etc” (without the quotes. From here on in, I’ll assume you’re ignoring the quotes)
  2. Check to see whether the file “ftpchroot” exists. If it doesn’t, type “sudo touch ./ftpchroot” and give you admin password if prompted for it

Now we need to add the username to the created file. Using pico:

  1. In Terminal type “sudo pico ./ftpchroot”. This’ll open up the file “ftpchroot” in a simple text editor in Terminal
  2. Type in your prospective ftp user’s username. Ours is “fred”. For safety, make the username all lowercase letters only – although we’ll let you have the underscore (“_”) too.
  3. Type ctl + “o”. That’s the letter “o” while holding down the control key
  4. Hit return
  5. Type ctl + “x” to eXit Pico

Create User Account

We do this in NetInfo Manager. I’m going to talk you through doing this the long winded way – but once you’ve got one account set-up, I’d suggest you duplicate an existing account and modify it as appropriate.

  1. Fire up NetInfo Manager
  2. At the bottom of the pane, click the little lock symbol and supply your admin username and password to unlock NetInfo Manager
  3. In the lefthand column, select “/”
  4. In the middle column select “users”
  5. Click the “New” icon at the top of the pane. This will create a new user called “new_directory”.

Now we need to modify this user account to give it the properties we’re after. Some of these properties will depend on your setup and how you want to administer your machine. We’ll use some reasonable settings but you may want to change these.

Before we go further, we do need to check what the next available user id (uid) is. To do this, click through your users in NetInfo Manager (ignoring the system users if you know what these are) making a note of the highest uid. In my case it’s 503. This means that my next user is going to be 504. Alternatively, start a new series for ftp users starting at 601.

Having done this, with the user “new_directory” selected in NetInfo Manager:

  1. Select the “name” property in the bottom half of the pane. Double click on the Value “new_directory” to select it and type in your username. In our example our username, as added to the ftpchroot file is “fred” – so that’s what we’ll type here.
  2. Create a new property by clicking in the “New” icon at the top of the pane. This will create a new property called “new_property”. Change the property value to “uid”. Now change its value “new_value” to the next available uid – or, if you’re starting a new series, 601.
  3. Add a new property for the group id – “gid”. We’ll set this to “20”. i.e. Create the new property, select “new_property” and type “gid”. Select “new_value” and type “20”.
  4. Follow this procedure to add:
    Property Value(s)
    expire   0
    change   0
    shell   /sbin/ftplogin
    home   /Users/<username>

    Where the text “<username>” in the last property (“home”) is the username of the user you’re adding. In our example “fred”. So the value for the property “home” would be “/Users/fred”. This means the bottom of your NetInfo Manager pane should end up looking something like:

    Property Value(s)
    home   /Users/fred
    shell   /sbin/ftplogin
    change   0
    expire   0
    gid   20
    uid   504
    name   fred

    2006-04-18: We’ve been contacted by Esben Sørensen and Antoine Durr over the weekend, both of whom make the observation that “realname” needs to be added to the properties listed here. i.e. we should end up with:

    Property Value(s)
    home   /Users/fred
    shell   /sbin/ftplogin
    change   0
    expire   0
    gid   20
    uid   504
    name   fred
    realname   Fred

    So, add the “realname” property “else the account’s system preference pane will henceforth come up blank due to an incorrect/invalid realname” (Antoine Durr).

    Thanks to Esben and Antoine.

  5. Make sure you remember the uid as you’ll need it in a sec.
  6. Close NetInfo Manager saving and confirming the save as you go.

Create A User Folder

We need to create a user folder and then change its ownership (and permissions) to reflect those of the newly created user.

  1. In Terminal, type “cd /Users”. Typing “ls” will give you a list of all the users on your machine
  2. Type “mkdir <username>” where <username> is the new user’s username. We’ll be typing “mkdir fred”
  3. Change the owner of this file by typing “sudo chown <uid>:20 ./<username>. Where <uid> is the uid for the user you added (and made a mental note of) and <username> is the username…. OK. You’ve got the idea. Oh. If your prompted for a password, give your admin password.
  4. Change the permissions of this file so that we can all access it (if you know what you’re doing here, set the permissions as you see fit). “sudo chmod 777 ./<username>”

Now we’re on the home stretch.

Give The User A Password

The next step is to give the newly created user a password. To do this, in Terminal:

  1. Type “sudo passwd <username>”. (So we’ll be typing “sudo passwd fred”).
  2. Type in the new password at the prompt.
  3. Retype it as prompted.

NAT?

If you’re behind a router or firewall which does Network Address Translation (NAT), there’s one more thing. Passive FTP requires the machine offering the FTP service to return its IP address and a port on which it’ll be listening. If you’re on a NATed network, it’s likely that the FTP server is going to return its internal IP number rather than the external address you’d prefer it to give. To get around this:

Create the file /etc/ftpd.conf

Add the line “advertise all <host>” where <host> is either the host name or external IP address for the FTP server.

Done

Restart the FTP server to ensure that all the caches are flushed and then see whether you can log-in via ftp as the new user. The easiest way of doing this is to turn FTP off and then on again in System Preferences -> Sharing.

Written by montanaflynn

January 29, 2008 at 9:15 pm

Transfer Between Mac OSX Host with Windows XP Guest in VirtualBox

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Until the latest version of VirtualBox (1.4.1) released for Mac, there are still no support for the Host Interface networking option enabled yet. Moreover, you even could not see the NIC card got working on Mac OSX running in some Intel Machine (Jas 10.4.8) since it didn’t recognized properly with the built-in driver. So, is there anyway to get a simple networking between both OS? Sure it does.

FYI, file transfer in a Shared Folders option allow you to access files of your Mac OSX system from within the Windows XP guest system, much like ordinary shares on Windows networks would – except that shared folders do not need a networking setup. Sharing is accomplished using a special service on the host and a file system driver for the guest, both of which are – fortunately – provided by VirtualBox. In order to use this feature, the VirtualBox Guest Additions have to be installed in guest OS. Currently, shared Folders are limited to Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Linux 2.4 and 2.6 guests. To share a folder with a virtual machine in VirtualBox, you must specify the path of the folder to be shared on the host and chose a “share name” that the guest can use to access it.

Then, you can mount the shared folder from inside a VM the same way as you would mount an ordinary network share.
In Windows XP guest, use the following formula command:

net use x: \\vboxsvr\sharename

While vboxsvr is a fixed name, replace “x:“ with the drive letter that you want to use for the share, and sharename with the share name specified before.

To simplify this, I used to create a batch file which can executed manually to mount all of the 4 shared folder name (1 NTFS partition for Windows XP, 2 FAT32 partition for data & 1 HFS Mac OSX partition) specified before after the guest OS shows up. For example, named it with vboxsvr.bat and the picture below is the values:

You can also create a link for the batch file & move it to on a someplace you like for example in a quick launch panel.

To test the script, simply click the shortcut file until it processed completely. If it succeeded, the script will create new networking drives available assigned next to the drive letter defined before on the batch file.

However, I still don’t understand why it marked with Disconnected Network Drive label although files & folders on both OS is accessible as you may seen on ordinary full permission shared drives.

Written by montanaflynn

January 28, 2008 at 5:30 pm

Posted in Hardware, OSX, Servers, Software

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Mac OSX Server 10.4

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Darwin: Kernel and BSD

Mac OS X Server starts with Darwin, the same open source foundation used in Mac OS X, Apples operating system for desktop and mobile computers. Darwin is built around the Mach 3.0 microkernel, which provides features critical to server operations, such as fine-grained multi-threading, symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), protected memory, a unified buffer cache (UBC), 64-bit kernel services and system notifications. Darwin also includes the latest innovations from the open source BSD community, particularly the FreeBSD development community.

Next-Generation Computing Power

Mac OS X Server v10.4 brings the power of 64-bit computing to mainstream servers opening up opportunities to process exponentially larger problems. Now with 64-bit addressing, Mac OS X Server can access massive amounts of memory, transcending the 4GB memory limitation of 32-bit systems. Its high-performance 64-bit file system enables you to create very large, exabyte-sized volumes for enormous databases and media storage. And its 64-bit optimized math libraries enable extremely accurate mathematical calculations. While Mac OS X Server is the ideal platform for next-generation networking applications and services, it also runs todays 32-bit applications natively no modification required.

Advanced BSD Networking

To increase the performance and security of your server deployments, Mac OS X Server incorporates industry-standard protocols and the latest in security standards such as multilink multihoming, IPv6, IPSec, IP over FireWire and 802.1X network authentication. New in Mac OS X Server v10.4 is Ethernet link aggregation and network interface failover (IEEE 802.3ad) for higher aggregated throughput and increased server availability. And with Mac OS X Server on Xserve G5, you also get support for Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tags and Ethernet Jumbo Frames. Using the time-tested BSD sockets and TCP/IP stack, these advanced networking features ensure compatibility and integration with IP-based networks.

Secure from the Start

Thanks to its UNIX foundation, Mac OS X Server contains robust security features in its core. To protect your server, your network and your organizations data, it also includes state-of-the-art technologies such as a built-in firewall with stateful packet analysis, strong encryption and authentication services, data security architectures and support for access control lists (ACLs) for fine-grained control of file system permissions. Simple interfaces and configuration tools allow you to set up systems easily and securely. In fact, when you take an Apple server out of the box, its already configured with the most secure settings.

Standards-Based Directory Services Architecture

Mac OS X Server features Open Directory, Apples directory and authentication services architecture. Open Directory allows you to integrate your server with any LDAP directory, leveraging the infrastructure you already have in place. It even integrates with proprietary services such as Microsofts Active Directory or Novell eDirectory. Also integrated is MITs Kerberos tcehnology, enabling single sign-on support in both Open Directory and Active Directory environments.

Optimized for Business-Critical Server Deployments

While Mac OS X Server has the same robust core as Mac OS X, it adds industrial-strength features required for server deployments. Designed for headless operation, Mac OS X Server enables you to install and configure services without connecting a monitor to the server. Powerful remote management tools allow you to securely manage services from anywhere on the network, and support for SSH2 provides secure access from the UNIX command line. To keep your systems up and running, Mac OS X Server has built-in tools for system monitoring, preventing accidental shutdown and recovering services quickly in case of network or power failure.

Written by montanaflynn

January 24, 2008 at 6:02 pm

Posted in Leopard, OSX, Servers, Software, Xserve

Tagged with , , , , , ,

Web Services With WebObjects

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Apple’s WebObjects is a comprehensive suite of tools and frameworks for quickly developing Java server applications. The release of WebObjects 5.2 allows developers to add standards-based web services to these applications, as well.

WebObjects gives you the ability to build or use web services without writing low-level SOAP, XML or WSDL documents. The WebObjects tools enable code-free generation, configuration and testing of web services from existing data assets. Because these web services can interoperate with clients written in many languages, including Java, AppleScript, and Perl, you can quickly create integrated solutions that would otherwise require a lot of coding.

This article shows you how to take an existing database and publish assets as web services, including a service description, all without writing any code.

Installation

If you don’t own your own copy of WebObjects 5.2, it is
available in a free trial version for Mac OS X version 10.2
or later at Apple
Developer Connection
. Directions on how to find the
download are on the
href=”http://www.apple.com/webobjects/getting_started.html”&gt;

WebObjects – Getting Started page. We will be working
with Mac OS X 10.3 and Xcode so you will also need the Xcode
Tools for Mac OS X, available for download at the Apple
Developer Connection web site, in the Developer Tools
section. After you download everything, install the
WebObjects_X_Developer package in the Developer
folder and restart your system. You must upgrade to
WebObjects 5.2.2 via Software Update or you can get the
manual update at the page
href=”http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=107649&#8243;
>About the WebObjects 5.2.2 Update.

If you don’t want to build the project by hand and just want to run it, you can download the example used in this article.

The Data Model

Installing WebObjects installs a sample database in addition to the WebObjects tools. Navigate to /Library/Frameworks/JavaRealEstate.framework/Resources/ and open the RealEstate.eomodeld file. This launches EOModeler and opens the model file of a ficticious real estate database of houses in Silicon Valley. EOModeler is used to reverse-engineer databases, automatically finding all tables, columns and relationships. At runtime the WebObjects persistence engine automatically maps and generates Java objects from JDBC databases. You don’t need to write any SQL code.

The image below shows the tables found in the real estate database on the left; however, EOModeler refers to them as entities. We’re going to work with two of them, Listing and ListingAddress. On the right are the attributes (columns) of a Listing. You may quit EOModeler. We don’t need it anymore.

Real Estate Model

Building the Server Application

The model can now be used to automatically generate a web services-enabled server application. First, launch Xcode, located in /Developer/Applications. Choose File > New Project. In the New Project Assistant, select Direct to Web Services Application. Name the project Houses. Accept the defaults until you see the Choose EOModels pane. Add the RealEstate.eomodeld model file at /Library/Frameworks/JavaRealEstate.framework/Resources. In the Build and Launch Project pane, deselect “Build and launch project now” and click Finish.

In the Xcode main window, click the triangle next to Resources. Select the Properties file and edit it so it looks like this:

WOAutoOpenInBrowser=false

WOPort=55555
Build and Run Click the Build and Run button in the Xcode toolbar to build and run the application. When you see the message Waiting for requests..., the WebObjects server application is running.

Everything should look like the image below:

Xcode

Configuring the Web Service

To customize a Direct to Web Services application you use the Web Services Assistant. It’s located in /Developer/Applications.

After you launch the Assistant, the Connect dialog appears. Enter http://localhost:55555 in the text input field and click Connect.

Most web services define a service with one or more operations, or methods. We’ll build a service HouseSearch and define an operation searchByPrice, which finds all house listings under a certain price. In addition to searching, WebObjects can generate Web service operations that let you insert, delete or update entries in a database.

In the Web Services Assistant main window, select http://localhost:55555 in the left-hand side list. Click the New Service toolbar button. Enter HouseSearch in the Service Name text field. Select Listing in the Available list of the Public Entities pane and add it by clicking the left-pointing arrow. Repeat for ListingAddress, making sure that the Enabled option is selected.

Now you add an operation to the HouseSearch Web service and define the calling arguments:

Click New Operation in the toolbar.

Enter searchByPrice in the Name text field.

Choose Listing from the Entity pop-up menu. Make sure the Type is search. Click OK.

In the main window, select askingPrice in the Available list in the Arguments pane and click the left-arrow button.

Choose “<=” from the Operator pop-up menu.

Select Return SOAP Struct.

Everything should look like the image below:

Web Services Assistant

Now, define the return values for this operation:

In the Return Values pane, select askingPrice from the Available list and click the left-arrow button.

Click the triangle next to address. Select address.street and click the left-arrow button. Repeat for address.city, address.state and address.zip.

Click the Save toolbar button.

You have now defined the HouseSearch service with the searchByPrice operation that finds all houses with an asking price less than or equal to its askingPrice argument and returns an array of listings, each with their asking price and address.

Everything should look like the image below:

Web Services Assistant

Testing the Service

Select searchByPrice under HouseSearch under http://localhost:55555.

Click the Test toolbar button. A test window is automatically generated with the appropriate user interface to test the searchByPrice operation.

Enter 250000 in the text input field and click Test. An empty list is returned. That is because a quarter of a million dollars won’t buy a home in Silicon Valley. Try again, entering 300000. This time three entries should be returned with their asking price and address.

See the image below:

Web Services Test

Generating WSDL Documents

Web Services Definition Language or WSDL is an XML format for describing web services and the operations they provide.

In the test window, click the WSDL tab. The WSDL document describing the HouseSearch Web service and its searchByPrice operation appears.

The WSDL document can also be retrieved directly from the server via the URL http://localhost:55555/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Houses.woa/ws/HouseSearch?wsdl. If you want to download the WSDL document and look at it, using the curl command is a convenient way to do so. In Terminal, execute the following command:

curl 'http://localhost:55555/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Houses.woa/ws/HouseSearch?wsdl' -o mywsdl.txt

Conclusion

You have developed, configured and tested a working Web
service with WebObjects without writing any SOAP, XML or
Java code. In addition, you learned how to obtain the WSDL
description that you can publish so client applications can
be built that use the service.

For more information about web services and WebObjects,
please refer to the manual titled “Web Services”
on the WebObjects Documentation site.

Editor’s note: WebObjects can do a lot more than web
services, including dynamic Web pages and distributed Java
Client applications. To find out more about WebObjects,
visit the
href=”http://www.apple.com/WebObjects/”>Web Objects page.

Written by montanaflynn

January 24, 2008 at 5:57 pm